Technologies to raise the efficiency of photovoltaic cells

Technologies to raise the efficiency of photovoltaic cells


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Information on technologies to raise the efficiency of photovoltaic cells:

  1.  Half Cut Cells 

The half-cell technique can be used in mono or polycarbonate cells, and a single cell inside the board is divided into two halves with high accuracy and by using a laser.

This improves the cells’ resistance to scratches, cracks, and breakage
It also improves the performance and productivity of cells, and we will discuss this in the following lines.

Reducing loss in efficiency: As we know that loss in cells is expressed
In the following equation, electrical losses = (current passing) x resistance
cutting the cells into two halves reduces the current passing while the resistance remains the same
In view of the equation, if the passing current is reduced, the electrical losses will also be reduced

Greater ability to tolerate shade: In conventional cells, the cells are arranged in rows and connected to each other in a serial manner
If one cell of the row is shaded and is not producing energy, the rest of the row will also stop producing energy.

Exactly the same thing with the half-cell technique if one cell is shaded
The entire row will stop producing, but let us note here that dividing the cells in half doubles the number of rows
This means that one row in the traditional cell equals two rows in the half-cell cells
stopping one row from working in conventional cells will disrupt production twice as much as the existing row in half-cell cells.

  1.  BERC Cells Technology

In general, solar cells consist of three layers
(front conduction layer – absorption layer which is responsible for energy generation – back conduction layer)
In BERC cells there is another layer behind the posterior conductive layer which is the passivating layer

The passivation layer increases the efficiency of energy absorption from sunlight by reflecting the light across the cell.

This process takes place by means that the solar radiation is absorbed in the absorption layer
While the remaining section passes inside the cell to reach the surface coated with the passivation layer
Which in turn reflects the solar radiation towards the absorption layer so that more energy in the solar radiation is absorbed.

The second benefit of the passivation layer lies in reducing the temperature of the solar cell

The silicon wafer in conventional cells can absorb light with a maximum wavelength of 1180 nanometers
As for more than that, it passes through the silicon layer to reach the metal part of the cell, where it is absorbed and transformed into heat that reduces the efficiency of the solar cell.

The passivation layer in Burke cells reflects light rays with a wavelength greater than 1180 nm, thus reducing the temperature of the cell and thus increasing its efficiency.

 Third benefit of the passivation layer is to reduce the union of electrons in the light and thus extract a larger amount of energy than the same amount of light.

The last feature of the passivation layer is its ability to absorb different wavelengths.
As we know that light consists of many wavelengths. Short wavelengths are absorbed by the atmosphere, while long wavelengths reach the cell.
Therefore, the cell must be designed and manufactured to be able to absorb the maximum possible range of different wavelengths.

When there are clouds or when the sun is absent or rising, the wavelengths are different from the daytime situation.
Therefore, conventional cells are unable to capture these different longitudinal waves.
In BERC cells, the passivation layer captures these longitudinal waves and reflects them back to the absorbing layer in the middle to convert them into energy.

  1. ( Bifacial Cells ) 

It is a simple technique based on adding a conductive layer at the back of the cell.
thus the cell is able to absorb direct light from the sun as well as light reflected from surfaces at ground level.

This technology depends on several factors, the most important of which are

– The location of the implementation of the station
because the rays or light reflected from the surfaces or from the ground depends on the location of that spot in relation to the sun

Cell inclination angle: The greater the inclination angle
the greater the passing light to the surface of the earth, and thus the reflected rays also increase

Horizontal distance between the cells: The greater the horizontal distance
the more light passes and is reflected from the surface of the earth

– Illumination coefficient: It is a coefficient that evaluates the percentage of light reflection from surfaces. Each surface or material has a different ability to reflect light than its counterpart. For example, the percentage of lightness coefficient for green grass is 23%, while cement is 16%. As for cement, if it is painted white, it is 60-80%.

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